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At the end of September 2016, vacancies reported by employers were for the following jobs: unskilled workers in the ready-made garment industry; retail workers; unskilled assembly line and component-fitting workers; freight handlers; shop assistants; unskilled workers for building demolition, wall linings, mosaic, wall and floor tiling, parquetry; unskilled workers for packing solid and semi-solid products; lorry/large tonnage vehicle drivers; textile sewing operators; cleaners. (Source: National Employment Agency (ANOFM), September 2016).

The top 10 professions ranked by the number of unemployed people as at the end of September 2016 are as follows: unskilled agricultural workers; unskilled workers for packing solid and semi-solid products; unskilled agricultural workers; unskilled workers for building demolition, wall linings, mosaic, wall and floor tiling, parquetry; unskilled workers for road, highway, bridge and dam maintenance; locksmiths; loaders/unloaders; freight handlers; retail workers; unskilled workers in the ready-made garment industry; shop assistants. (Source: National Employment Agency (ANOFM), September 2016).

According to data provided by the National Institute of Statistics, Romania has 19.9 million inhabitants.  

According to the Labour Ledger as at 1 January 2016, the active civilianpopulation stood at 8 776 800, representing 44.4 % of the country’s total population. Out of the total active population, 54.1 % were men and 45.9 % were women.

The employed civilian population stood at 8 340 600, of whom 5 041 100 were salaried employees. Most of the employees were working in the services sector (3 100 200 people), while 1 821 800 persons were employed in the industrial and construction sectors. The number of employees in agriculture, forestry and fisheries was 119 100. In the second quarter of 2016, the employment rate of the working age population (15-64 years old) was 61.8 %, with a higher rate for men (70.0 %, compared to 53.4 % for women).

Two different sets of data concerning the unemployment rate are calculated in Romania. The ILO unemployment rate is calculated by the National Institute of Statistics (INS) using the definition provided by the International Labour Organization. In August 2016, this rate was 6.0 %, according to the INS press release of September 2016. 

The rate of registered unemployment, determined by the National Employment Agency (ANOFM), is calculated on the basis of the number of unemployed people registered in the ANOFM database. At the end of May 2016, this rate was 4.08 %, corresponding to 410 500 registered unemployed persons.

Romania is divided into eight administrative regions: North-West, Centre, North-East, South-East, South-Muntenia, Bucharest-Ilfov, South-West Oltenia and West. Each of these has certain specific features in respect of their economic structure, which is why certain sectors play a predominant role in the development of each region. In the North-East and South-West regions, a large share of the population is engaged in agricultural activities. The civilian population is employed mainly in industry and the construction sector in the West and Centre regions, and in the services sector in the Centre, West and Bucharest-Ilfov regions. 

There are also several areas which have significant tourism potential (Bucovina in the North-East region, the Black Sea coast and the Danube Delta in the South-East region, etc.), and the economic development of these areas is influenced also by the use of this potential. 

At the end of May 2016, the highest rates of registered unemployment were recorded in the South-West region (6.4 %) and the South-Muntenia region (5.5 %). The lowest rates of registered unemployment were recorded in Bucharest (1.6 %) and the West region (2.9 %). 

The main types of enterprise present on the labour market are companies (limited liability companies (SRL), joint-stock companies (SA), partnerships (SNC), simple partnerships (SCS), joint-stock partnerships (SCA)), sole traders (PFA) and family associations).

The main categories of employers are multinational companies, profit/non-profit state-owned companies, private companies and NGOs. According to the 2016 Coface CEE Top 500 Companies study, the largest companies in Romania in terms of turnover are: Automobile Dacia SA, OMV Petrom Marketing SRL, OMV Petrom SA, Rompetrol Rafinare SA, Kaufland România, Rompetrol Downstream SRL, British American Tobacco Trading SRL, Lukoil Romania SRL, Carrefour România SA, EON Energie România SA, and Transgaz SA. 

The main types of employment contract are contracts which may be fixed-term or permanent, with full-time or part-time working hours. Certain jobs require specific qualifications and/or experience. For further details, see chapter 3.3 of 'Living and Working in Romania'.

Sources: National Employment Agency, Ministry of Labour, Family, Social Protection and the Elderly, National Institute of Statistics. 


Yes, a visa gives you the right to enter and stay in Romania for a limited period of time; currently for a maximum term of three months. However, if you are interested in living in Romania for a longer period of time, such as working in the same place for a year, you will need a residence permit.

Therefore, the first stage is to apply for a visa in your national country (whether it is Israel or otherwise). If you interested in actually living in Romania, the second obligatory step is to apply for a residence permit in Romania at the Ministry of Immigration, after your arrival in the country.

In all cases, our recommendation is to contact an attorney that specializes in immigration, to ensure that your visa application is handled professionally and without any issues.

Companies can employ any foreigner whose studies have been officially recognized by the Romanian authorities, and provided the candidate is able to fill an existing position vacancy. The Romanian company is obligated to provide proof that it is unable to find any suitable Romanian citizen for the intended position.

You can apply for an employment visa at the Romanian Embassy or Consulate located in Israel.

The visa application must include a number of documents, the most important of which is the permit (aviz de munca ) obtained by the company that is interested in hiring your services.

An employment visa is a D/AM type visa, which means that you can stay in Romania for an extended period of time – up to 90 days after entering the country. In addition, an application for a Romanian residency permit must be submitted at least 30 days before the Romanian work visa expires. In other words, the application must be submitted within the first 60 days of the legal stay.

If you stay beyond the legal period allowed, you may be fined. If you have stayed far past the legal period allowed, you may be expelled from the country or in some cases your ability to make future trips to Romania will be nullified.

An employment visa is a long-stay residence visa which allows you to travel to Romania and work there as a full-time employee, as a support staff member (seconded staff), or to occupy other job positions.

Yes, you will first be required to find an employer in Romania. After that, you will need to check what type of employment contract you are going to sign with the employer. At the next stage, the employer is required to go to the immigration office and undergo a prior approval procedure regarding the foreign worker.

If the employer has succeeded in the aforesaid procedure, the Ministry of Immigration will issue a special type of permit for the purpose of accepting you as an employee. (aviz de munca).


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